Loulan ancient country , once a brilliant civilization, even disappeared overnight, then what is the reason for the disappearance of Loulan ancient country?
How can we untie the reasons for the disappearance of Loulan?
Loulan Guguo , its legendary experience is as mysterious and distant as its name. From a century ago, it was dramatically reappeared in front of the world, attracting people from different countries and races to explore and explore. With an exciting archaeological discovery, a chapter, a ministry explores and studies the history of Loulan. The continuous development of academic achievements such as geography, language, and humanities, Loulan’s experience has been more and more clearly reproduced. The mystery of this ancient country has gradually disappeared, and all the people who care about Loulan and pay attention to the history of the Western Regions have revisited this silk. The ancient city experienced the savage, civilized, brilliant and lonely.
This ancient city was first discovered by Western adventurers. From the mid-19th century to the beginning of the 20th century, Western adventurers turned their attention to the Taklimakan Desert, which has been in central Asia for more than a thousand years. In 1900, Swedish explorer Sven Hedin and his companions came to explore for the second time. They struggled to the north bank of Lop Nur, preparing to dig fresh water nearby, and found that the shovel was lost. The accompanying guide, Eldick, returned to guide. Halfway through the big sandstorm, what he never imagined was that after the gusty wind, an ancient city composed of a mud tower and houses was miraculously displayed.
This article summarizes the reasons for the disappearance of ancient Loulan:
a global climate aridity is the background of
two, the Tibetan Plateau uplift factor is the geographical
three human over-exploitation accelerate the demise of Lop Nur
whether Loulan left us much precious relics, so much modern The fascinating beauty of the people, the oasis that once had a clear stream of water and the beauty of the earth and the earth, the soul home that once made the generations of Loulan people fall in love, was eventually swallowed up by the ruthless Huangsha. Is the disappearance of the ancient city of Loulan really a mysterious force that cannot be speculated by modern people? On the contrary, from the excavation of cultural relics to analyze this problem, archaeologists pointed out that this issue should be linked to the mysterious Lop Nur.
When the Swedish explorer Sven Heding discovered the ancient city of Loulan, which had been sleeping for a thousand years, with a shovel, the small country of the Western Region, which was only recorded in the history books of the Han Dynasty, returned to the world. What kind of brilliance did it create? How did it disappear into the hustle and bustle of historical dust? Our visiting team went deep into the ruins of the ancient city and found the ruins of each building here, every bamboo slip unearthed, and every ancient tomb, with amazing secrets…
When going from Loulan Conservation Station to visiting the ancient city ruins, the entire wilderness was still covered in darkness. The galaxy of the sky is like a shining diamond, densely embedded in the sky above Lop Nur, which is the most beautiful pattern on the wilderness. We drove two off-road vehicles and drove in the desert of Rob in tandem. The uneven road surface looks around and seems to be the same before and after. The off-road vehicle is like a lonely ship sailing without any coordinate guidance. Only one rut is printed on the distant horizon. There is no choice.
Loulan Conservation Station is 40 kilometers away from Loulan Ancient City, in the northeast direction. The sky was bright, and the wilderness was shrouded in a light blue light. At this time, I suddenly saw a sign on an undulating sandbag. The driver, Master Wu, stopped the car. I was able to get close to the sandbag in the cold wind and saw the faintly recognizable handwriting on the sign: Loulan Ancient City. Although this brand is insignificant in the vast wilderness, people who travel to and from the ancient city of Loulan rely on it to guide the direction, lacking it, and the consequences are unimaginable.
Loulan ancient country is still vague
The off-road vehicle has been driving from the sky to the dark color until the hot sun, we have not seen the shadow of the ancient city of Loulan. A sandbag is connected to a sandbag, and the road leading to Loulan is still extending in the desert. This road was pressed from the oil exploration vehicle “Yenimock” when it was in the former oil line. There is a thick layer of soft soil on the road. The wheels walked on top and immediately fell into the void, and the tires were almost drowned. If you walk, you can hardly see your feet.
The young driver of the other off-road vehicle, Abulimi, took the hard road for the first time. He used the walkie-talkie to keep asking: “How long is the road ahead?” Wizard Xiao Yang came to the walkie-talkie. The sentence “Japanese cavity”: “There is no good road ahead, only the hard way.”
In the past 100 years, the power of nature’s wildness has changed the face of Lop Nur, and the fascinating landscape of Yadan is spectacular. The Peacock River flowing through the ancient city of Loulan has dried up, leaving only a dry river trough. Within 100 meters of the coast, the eyes are dead reeds and red willow shrubs. After staying on this road for a long time, everyone seems a little annoyed and upset. From time to time, I asked Xiao Yang: “Where is Loulan?” Suddenly, Xiao Yang smiled and pointed to the front and said, “Look, Loulan Stupa!” Looking in the direction of his fingers, there is indeed a wilderness in the distance. A stupa stood in the wind. I looked at the watch, a straight distance of 40 kilometers, but it took nearly 6 hours. The weathered Loulan Stupa is like a lighthouse piloted in the sea of sand.
When we faced the ancient city of Loulan, we couldn’t help but slammed it: this mysterious ancient city, which is all over the world, was separated by a simple iron net frame. The city and the city have the same scenery. The ancient walls were ruined and almost nothing was visible at the entrance. Xiao Yang opened the lock and pushed the iron door open, just like pushing a thick history. The entire city is extremely quiet. Here, everything seems to have held your breath and watched our strange visitors.
The ancient city of Loulan was once described by the Swedish explorer Sven Hedin as “Pombe of the East”. Pompeii is an ancient Roman city on the Apennine peninsula, covered by volcanic ash erupted by volcanoes, but the ancient city of Loulan in front of it is not completely buried by sand. We headed for the center of the ancient city, and an east-west dry river bed stopped our steps. The river is about seven or eight meters wide. I can’t see the ruins of the bridge. Only the river once washed the traces of the embankment. In the river, I also found a white freshwater shell. This tributary originated from the Peacock River passed through the city. According to archaeologists, this is a man-made canal. This shows that at the time of the city, the ancient Loulan people understood the technique of diverting water.
In the platform of the city center, some intensive residual wall and truss buildings tell us that we came to the bustling places of the year. According to research, this was once the Loulan people’s palace and the Han people’s martial arts – the site of the Western Region’s long history, here also unearthed a large number of Chinese characters written in Wei Jinmu, documents and Lu instruments. The Chinese text is a script written on a wooden slip with a wooden pen and ink. The writing is clear. And Lu Wen is a long-lost text, no one can solve it. This text, originated in the northwestern part of ancient India, was circulated to the Tarim Basin in the third century AD and was once widely used, and then disappeared mysteriously.
In addition to the stupa, the most conspicuous architectural relic in the ancient city of Loulan is the “three rooms”, which is famous for the famous “Li Bai Instrument” discovered by the Japanese monk Orange Rui. The “three rooms” are also the strongest buildings in the city. Although the roofs and doors have disappeared, the walls on three sides are still there. I used to discuss with relevant experts in Ruoqiang County. They think that the “three rooms” are part of the long history of the Western Regions. They may be the warehouses that store confidential documents and weapons in the mansion: “Many claims that it is the government.衙 Office, but all three houses are rectangular, no matter which direction they are facing, no desk can be placed.”
Although there were more than 14,000 people in Loulan in the Western Han Dynasty, it seems that there are not many residents in the city from the perspective of the only remaining Populus euphratica and the low reed wall. Today, the bottom of these buildings has been buried by sand dunes. From the analysis of the size of the house and the construction materials, the experts believe that the ancient city of Loulan had a distinct polarization between the rich and the poor, aristocrats, businessmen, monks, the poor, and the caravans, messengers, Aryans, The Serbs, the Yue people, the rest of the rest, the Huns, etc. came and went, and these people built their own operational order in the ancient city of Loulan.
Tudor Wharf Ruins
The only waterway leading to Loulan
There is not a drop of water in the sand of Loulan Ancient City, but the traces of water can be seen everywhere, especially the evaporating water and land wanderings, which brings infinite surprises and helplessness.
The Tuyu site is located on the platform on the north bank of Lop Nur. It was surrounded by water on three sides and landed on the north. It is the site of the Han Dynasty water-land terminal and the station. Bohai Sangtian, an important trading port more than 2,000 years ago, is now a human being. The bandit is located beside the ancient peacock river. It was once the most important water and land town in the western Han Dynasty. It was said that there were still officers and soldiers at the time, and it was the rear supply base of the Western Han army. Now there is a desert in the desert. Only a few residual piles and remains are standing alone in the wind. There are ruins and ruins of warehouses, shackles and soldiers. There are also gates in the northwest of the site. Warehousing area, residential area and depot area.
If the time can be reversed, the bandits should be a beautiful picture of the frontier; the clear waves of Lop Nur are in front of them, and the blossoming waves are accompanied by the gull slamming the pier. According to historical data, the bandits of the Han Dynasty were the last gateway before entering the ancient city of Loulan. The water network was dense and the shipping was busy. During the Western Han Dynasty, there were 4 traffic lines into and out of Loulan, and the bandit line was the only waterway. The stationed army removes the warehousing, and the main daily work is to greet the messengers, bureaucrats, and provide accommodation and horses. As the port of Lop Nur and the gateway to the ancient city of Loulan, the bandits have witnessed the history of the development, development, fall and abandonment of the ancient city of Loulan, and witnessed the fate of Loulan’s life and death.
The famous archaeologist Huang Wenzhao of China is the earliest discoverer of the Tuyu site and the founder of the archaeological cause of China’s modern western region. In April 1930, Huang Wenzhao came to the Tarim Basin. His intention was to go through the Peacock River to visit the ancient city of Loulan. However, when he arrived at the Peacock River, he found that the river was soaring, the water was rushing, and he could not spend it, so he could only be in the peacock. On the bank of Hebei Province, under the circumstance, he discovered the site of the bandits and excavated more than 70 Tablets of the Western Han Dynasty. These notes record the history of the once-popular traffic of the bandits, which can determine the geography of the ancient city of Loulan. The location and historical evolution are of great value.
The place where Yu Chunshun, known as the “Lone Ranger”, bids farewell to the world is also near the site of the Tuyu. He has traveled to most of China for 8 years and is one of the most experienced explorers in China. In 1996, the last supper for the departure of Yu Chunshun was held here. The heroic heroes did not listen to dissuasion and decided to challenge Lop Nur in June. They eventually returned in the sun and the heat. A few days later, the search and rescue personnel found Yu Chunshun’s body in a tent half a kilometer away from the bandits. Lop Nur added a bit of desolateness and tragicness…
The ancient mystery of Loulan ancient tomb
Western countries in the murals
Loulan Ancient Tombs are about 10 kilometers from Loulan Protection Station. In the unguarded period before April 2002, nearly 1,000 stolen buildings in the Loulan tomb of more than 100 square kilometers were stolen, and many precious cultural relics were stolen or destroyed. It is a pity that it is now a key inspection of the protection station. Object.
Our car stopped in front of a sand beam, and the guide Xiao Yang jumped out of the car and pulled a piece of broken wood from the sand to remove it. The board was covered with sharp nails. Seeing my incomprehensible situation, he explained that these nails were dedicated to the tires of the robbers. Because the facilities of the Loulan Protection Station were simple, the staff had to adopt such original methods.
Moving on, the road where the car traveled was on the dry river bed. On both sides of the river, a cluster of dead red willow branches swayed in the wind. When it was getting closer and closer to those graves, I was a little uneasy. I was afraid. Surprised to every soul here. Originally, the ancient Loulan people sealed their ancestral secrets, but now they have been repeatedly harassed by tomb thieves. Looking at the towering terraces, I can’t help but ask questions from the bottom of my heart: Why are these tombs built in such a high place?
From the appearance, the earthen platform is like an isolated island. The car parked under a tall platform, standing next to a black stone monument – this is the symbol of entering the tomb of the Loulan tomb, the stone tablet suggests that from the Neolithic Age to the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the Loulan people of various periods were buried here. The age span is two thousand years away. Why do Loulan people from different eras choose this place as their own destination? What secret is buried here?
The sun projected the shadow of the platform on the ground, which seemed confusing and seemed to be the prelude to a tomb novel. Next to the terrace is a dry river, and a large piece of dead reeds slanted sideways. Archaeologists speculate that there was water all around here long ago. Only these terraces were exposed to the water, so the ancients used canoes to transport the bodies of the old people. Be buried here to pray for the peace of the soul. Then, why did Loulan people bury their ancestors in this water cemetery? There is currently no answer.
If the treasure of the town hall of Loulan Museum in Lou County, Loulan Beauty is unearthed here. The robbers thieves rushed her out of the cemetery. Fortunately, the body was well preserved and was not damaged. Perhaps the image of this Loulan beauty is too perfect. In the dark night of the moon, the tomb thief is afraid of the guilty conscience. They only rushed to take a few pieces of funerary objects, and then backfilled the tomb. This beautiful Lan beautiful woman not only keeps her hair, body and clothing intact, but even her long eyelashes are quite a lot. She wears a pointed felt hat with feathers on it, a deep sacral eye socket, and a beautiful face. It was measured in the same age as the Aryan people and discovered by the archaeologist Mu Yuying.
The Loulan ancient tomb group left the biggest puzzle for the world, about the body. Why are the corpses in the same boundary, some of them preserved intact, and some are white bones? What kind of superb technology did the Loulan people used in the Bronze Age made their bodies last for millennium? Sven Heding has a famous conjecture: there must be many deeper things to be overlooked about the exploration and discovery of Loulan’s tomb. He once asked himself: Loulan ancient city has obvious Han culture characteristics, but why did the Luobu wasteland not find a Han Chinese tomb? The explanation can only be: after the death of the Han people in the Western Regions, they will be “returned to the hometown” and buried in their hometown. However, the distance from the Western Region to the Central Plains is far away, and it is impossible to realize the ideal of burying the hometown. So far, the archaeology of this ancient tomb group has not been closed, and those puzzles can only be left to future generations to answer.
What impressed me the most was the mural tomb – when Xiao Yang smashed the key and opened the mural tomb, a ray of sunlight hit the dark tomb, I saw the scattered painted coffin board and The white bones, as well as the wall paintings that were once the most advanced in ancient China: gold camels and silver camels are engraved in the murals. Some scholars believe that they symbolize the status, power and wealth of the tomb owners. On the right wall, several portraits were painted, but the face was fuzzy, but the clothes were gorgeous, and the five people holding the wines side by side were enjoying a drink and a happy scene. One of the red shirt chiefs gracefully held the goblet. I suspect that there must be a wine that is popular in the Western Regions – it is said that the neighboring country of Niya, at that time, almost every household will make a happy wine. Archaeologists have discovered two modern wine cellars in the southeast of Loulan Ancient City, indicating that during the Western Han Dynasty, Loulan people had the prototype of brewing wine.
Lop Nur was once the largest lake in the arid regions of northwest China. The lake reached 12,000 square kilometers and reached 500 square kilometers at the beginning of the last century. At that time, Loulan people built more than 100,000 square meters of Loulan ancient city on the side of Lop Nur, but by 1972, But eventually dried up. What caused the Lop Nur, which used to be a fish and fat, to become a desert? What is the reason for the rush of the Silk Road that year – the ancient city of Loulan has become an inaccessible desert Gobi? This has always been a scientific mystery.
Recently, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Lop Nur Environmental Drilling Science Expedition conducted a comprehensive systematic environmental science investigation of Lop Nur. The expedition team believes that: According to preliminary inference, with the rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau between 70 and 80,000 years ago, Lop Nur migrated from south to north, and the aridification gradually increased, eventually causing the entire lake to dry up. Such an explanation is obviously not satisfactory. Professor Zhou Kunshu of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences believes that the reasons for the dryness of Lop Nur are complicated. This is both a global issue and a regional one. In addition to the natural reasons, there are also human factors.
First, the global climate and drought is a big background.
About 10,000 years ago, the earth’s environment has undergone unprecedented changes, that is, from the dry and cold environment of the last glacial period to the humid environment of the post-glacial period. With this opportunity, human culture has also entered the Paleolithic era. Neolithic. After 10,000 years, the geological environment has undergone three major phase changes. It is about 10000 to 8000 years ago, and it is about 8000 to 3000 years. It is a high temperature period (climate suitable period), 3000 times ago. Year to date is the cooling period. These three major environmental changes have been confirmed by the Institute of Paleoenvironment of Geology, Biology, Chemistry and Physics, but only slightly differed in the time of the three-stage division due to differences in methods, locations or research objects. This change in the environmental climate plans the scope and manner of human activities.
Taking Loulan as an example, humans in the Neolithic Age were involved here. In the Bronze Age, the population was prosperous. At this time, it was just during the high temperature period. The Lop Nur Lake was vast and the environment was suitable. However, after entering the cooling zone, the water and soil environment became worse, the river water decreased, the lakes shrank, and the desert expanded. The drought has intensified about 2000 years ago. This is reflected in the occurrence of ice in the vast areas of northern China, the accumulation of loess, the demise of lakes and the retreat.
The demise of the ancient city of Loulan was about BC to the 4th century (the Han Dynasty of the Central Plains to the Northern Wei Dynasty), when the drought was intensified. In fact, in this process of drought, not only the ancient city of Loulan died, but also due to the expansion of the desert, the death of Niya, Karadun, Milan City, Nepali City, Khan City, and Tongwan City occurred. The demise of the ancient city of Loulan occurred in the north of China, even in the context of the global climate. It is not an isolated space, but because Loulan is in arid inland, the changes in human and natural environment are more remarkable.
Second, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift is a regional factor
In addition to the global climate change, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau uplift is the most important reason for regionality. The Tibetan Plateau has risen rapidly 7 to 80,000 years ago. This uplift has a decisive role in the climate of northwestern China. Since Lop Nur is located in the northwestern part of East Asia, the warm and humid air currents of the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean are rarely reached here every year.
When the global climate changes, the trend of drought, desertification and Gobiization began to appear in western Asia. During this period, Lop Nur began to move from south to north. At about 70,000 years ago, the lake surface fell sharply to the end of the lake. Due to the unevenness of the bottom of the lake, the original huge unified ancient Lop Nur was decomposed into the current Lake Tema, Kala and Shunhu, and the larger Lop Nur in the north.
Among the regional factors, one must be worth noting. It is said that from the recent remote sensing data, a large landslide event occurred in the upper reaches of the Peacock River. The landslide completely blocked the river channel of the Peacock River, causing the water in Lop Nur to be broken. The problem now is that I don’t know the exact time of the landslide. It remains to be studied before it occurs in Lop Nur.
Third, human over-expansion accelerates the disappearance
of Lop Nur The impact of human activities on the dryness of Lop Nur can be said to be getting bigger and bigger in the near future. Water and trees are the key to the survival of an oasis on a wasteland. The ancient city of Loulan is being built in the lower delta of the Peacock River, where the water system was developed at that time. There were once growing poplar trees for its construction. At that time, Loulan people built more than 100,000 square meters of Loulan ancient city on the side of Lop Nur, they cut down many trees and reeds, which will undoubtedly have a negative impact on the environment.
During this period, the intensification of human activities and the changes in water systems and the destruction of wars have further aggravated the already fragile ecological environment. The “male root stump” densely planted on the No. 5 Xiaohe cemetery shows that Loulan people had felt the tribal survival crisis at that time and had to pray for reproductive worship to bless their descendants. But they cut a lot of already scarce trees, adding to the already deteriorating environment. The final dryness of Lop Nur was related to the overexploitation of the upper reaches of the Tarim River after our liberation. When we drove a lot of water in the upper reaches of the Tarim River, the water in the Tarim River was unable to make ends meet, and the downstream was interrupted. This can be confirmed by the recent interruption of the Yellow River. Lop Nur also began to shrink rapidly because there was no replenishment of water, and eventually died.
Fourth, the ancient city of Loulan disappeared into a “sorrow of the world” to
mention the ancient city of Loulan, people will think of the Swedish explorer Sven Heding, because he first announced the existence of the ancient city of Loulan in 1901. On March 28, 1900, the Swedish explorer Sven Hedin was inspected in the Loeb Desert. He hired a workman and a guide. Uighur peasant Erdick found a piece on the northwestern shore of Lop Nur on the way to find the lost tool. After the ancient ruins, Sven Heding heard that he immediately came to the ruins with Aldick and found that the ancient ruins were scattered with beautiful wood carvings, fabrics and coins. Due to lack of drinking water, Sven Hedin had to return. After a year of preparation, on March 3, 1901, Sven Heding made a special trip to the ruins and conducted a week of excavation work. After sorting out the analysis, Heding has the name of Loulan according to the unearthed documents, and he has made this monument a Loulan. This important discovery shocked the world and won great honor for Sven Heding. Then the British Stein, the Japanese Orange Ruichao, etc., all found the Loulan site along the road map of Heding. Their excavation work is more thorough and meticulous, but it is also destructive and predatory. These work became an important geographical basis for the future exploration of Loulan.
Although it is difficult to identify the former face of Loulan City from the Gobi and Yadan landforms, scientists have discovered from a large amount of information and investigations that as a major town on the Silk Road, Loulan City, which was abandoned for 1500 years, was once brilliant. According to expert analysis, the ruins of Loulan have a history of 1800 years. After the looting of sandstorms, there are only the incomplete poplar wood frame and a small amount of reed wall. Judging from the size of the house and the building materials, the housing conditions of ordinary people at that time were relatively simple, but the large amount of fine woodwork and ancient coins left behind in the ruins reminded people that there is also a rich family in Loulan City. Experts believe that there is a polarization between the rich and the poor in Loulan City. At the same time, these wood products show us the exquisite craftsmanship of the woodworking and the prosperity of the Loulan economy. Experts have found that there are dozens of residences like this, and they are concentrated in the west of the city to form a residential area. In the east of the city, there are administrative and military areas. The city has complete functions and clear layout, and urban planning and development awareness. Obvious.